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books pdf The Shame Of The Nation: The Restoration Of Apartheid Schooling In America By Jonathan Kozol –

Essential reading Describes the process of de facto segregation in schooling, based on population, demographics, and funding This problem goes back decades, and is self perpetuating, feeding into itself due to the effects of poverty and crime and prejudice and how they all feed into each other.How could all this happen, even after the de jure ban on segregation passed by Brown v Board of Education The schools are underfunded due to the system which is dependent upon property taxes, which also are derived from poorer neighborhoods See also, Savage Inequalities Children in America s Schools This underfunding leads to a poor quality materials, decaying buildings, lack of cafeteria food or desks, etc Misguided and overly strict education programs, which try and force all types of students into a standardized mold instead of allowing some variation for different career tracks A corporate approach to education, making students think like managers , team players , and being subservient to a larger authority or group A heavy and misguided focus on standardized testing, forcing students to prepare for the test above all This is also related to the problem of underfunding, as the No Child Left Behind debacle left students with bad scores without funding Thus the problem is compounded and made worse.And so forth All of this leads to the segregation of schools by race and class, and a major cause of socioeconomic stratification in America In other words, apartheid not directly by law, but indirectly Would integration alone resolve this problem Hardly There are so many compounding factors that relying upon only one method would be woefully inadequate But attacking the funding deficit would be a start Or removing the over regimented program of standardized testing OrNot too long ago, I worked in my state senate, and talked to a Republican senator who was an advocate in doubling state funding for preschool programs He was almost alone in his party in advocating this program, and he d had almost no success in pushing it through over the past six years arguably due to a climate of fiscal austerity and unsubtle racist code phrases against any educational reform When I asked him about why he pushed it and very few others did, he looked at me with a sigh of resignation and said Preschoolers don t have lobbyists. Since The Early S, When The Federal Courts Began Dismantling The Landmark Ruling In Brown V Board Of Education, Segregation Of Black Children Has Reverted To Its Highest Level SinceIn Many Inner City Schools, A Stick And Carrot Method Of Behavioral Control Traditionally Used In Prisons Is Now Used With Students Meanwhile, As High Stakes Testing Takes On Pathological And Punitive Dimensions, Liberal Education Has Been Increasingly Replaced By Culturally Barren And Robotic Methods Of Instruction That Would Be Rejected Out Of Hand By Schools That Serve The Mainstream Of SocietyFilled With The Passionate Voices Of Children, Principals, And Teachers, And Some Of The Most Revered Leaders In The Black Community, The Shame Of The Nation Pays Tribute To Those Undefeated Educators Who Persist Against The Odds, But Directly Challenges The Chilling Practices Now Being Forced Upon Our Urban Systems In Their Place, Kozol Offers A Humane, Dramatic Challenge To Our Nation To Fulfill At Last The Promise Made SomeYears Ago To All Our Youngest Citizens Although Kozol makes a compelling argument about how segregated inner city schools are in this nation, he implies that integration will automatically make urban schools better My question for him is, how Putting people of different backgrounds in one school does not guarantee that the school will automatically be better My issue is, he critiques predominantly black Hispanic schools for being too much of the same but he barely addresses how predominantly white schools are posing the same problem Once again, whiteness is normalized, and I just cannot accept that We already know schools are segregated I want some research that proves that integration works academically, socially and emotionally Will there bediscussions of race class schooling in integrated schools How will students learn to respect diversity apart from superficial cultural days These are the questions I want answered. Throughout The Shame of a Nation, author Jonathan Kozol describes his journey through 60 different inner city school detailing the discrepancies between those and rural schools Kozol sheds some light on apartheid schooling, where minorities specifically black and hispanic students make up virtually the entire student body Kozol details how the American education system is failing these students particularly because these schools are underfunded, hire untrained teachers, and are overcrowded Kozol doesn t just point these facts out, rather he compares these schools with those in rural areas that receivefunding and thus provide aadvantageous environment for young and eager minds Kozol often alludes to the Brown v Board of Education decision as well as the separate but equal doctrine, allowing him to illuminate a side of the education system that many want to keep in the dark Kozol uses his experiences and statistics to explain how and why inner city schools are being forced to fail their students He sheds light on the fact that the government simply does not supply these schools with the tools necessary for a quality education As mentioned, inner city schools, who are primarily filled with black and hispanic students, have unqualified teachers who are not properly trained feeding the brains of young students Not only this, but there is an extreme difference in the amount of funding that inner city schools receive in comparison to rural area schools This is on top of the fact that a majority of the students at these schools already live in poverty One of the most heart wrenching topics that Kozol recognizes is how people provide little hope to these urban students In his personal experiences visiting these schools, Kozol explains how students are often ranked on a 1 4 scale depending on one s intelligence, where students on the lower end of the spectrum are often ostracized and overlooked All of this helps Kozol to demonstrate how the decisions made in Brown v Board of Education as well as the separate but equal doctrine have almost become nonexistent in today s schools Schools continue to be segregated and have large concentrations of certain races within them, and Kozol has made it undoubtedly clear that the educational facilities that are promised to children in order to help them grow into bright adolescents are far from equal Jonathan Kozol has spent virtually his entire adult life serving as an advocate for equal educational opportunities for all He became a 4th grade teacher based in a black impoverished neighborhood of Boston in 1964 Kozol has written numerous books that detail his experiences as a teacher as well as describe the conditions of underfunded schools in America It was his time spent as a 4th grade teacher where he encountered the same issues and conditions that he would witness over and over again when he would begin his five year project of The Shame of a Nation Many of Kozol s works have been nominated and have won awards, including the 1968 National Book Award in Science, Philosophy, and Religion, the National Book Critics Circle Award of 1992, and the Anisfield Wolf Book Award of 1996 Kozol himself has a highly recognizable name when it comes to activism regarding educational equality Personally, I thoroughly enjoyed reading The Shame of a Nation It was a very insightful book that provided an in depth look at the vast differences between rural and inner city schools Kozol does an excellent job of engaging the reader and forces them to provoke emotion primarily anger in my case The Shame of a Nation was very informative, especially with the integration of the statistics that Kozol emphasized I always knew that all schools weren t equal in the sense of some schools havingadvanced technology,money, etc However it was Kozol who informed me that countless American schools continue to practice segregation as well as helping me to understand just how dramatic the differences in treatment schools receive based on their location and who goes there Additionally, I thought that Kozol was successful in helping his readers understand that the promised right to a quality education is not in fact a guaranteed right, but merely a privilege that some receive based on their socio economic background Coming from a school that supplies well qualified teachers as well as the technology and materials necessary for me to succeed, makes it difficult for me to fully comprehend what it is like to go to school under any other circumstance However Kozol s work gives me a second hand view into schools that don t come close to the caliber of my own His detailing of these inner city schools helps to accentuate the education that many students take for granted At my school for example, students are supplied with chromebooks, textbooks, workbooks, and other technologies that enable us to control our own education It is at these inner city schools however where the educational path for students is already planned for them some will graduate, and as for the others, there is no hope It was disheartening to read and come to the realization that there are a copious amount of schools in the US in which the government allows to attempt to raise the country s future with insufficient supplies Overall, one of the biggest and saddest takeaways I got from The Shame of a Nation was that education serves as the foundation of a person s success, however there are millions of minority children who are being stripped of the right to this foundation because of a lack of hope and where they to happen go to school. Given the amount of Kozol s work that I have read, I m going to just write 1 review for now His works on poverty, homelessness, and adult illiteracy are also worth reading, but I am most impressed by his books on the absolutely atrocious state of American education If you are going to choose just one of his books, I would suggest this one his most recent indictment of racism and classism in our public schools or Savage Inequalities a scathing report on public school systems across the country which, though written in the 1990s, is sadly not too far off from the situation now Although Kozol s grammar and writing style frustrates me at times, these are ultimately mere quibbles with his books the importance of his content, his attention to detail and statistics, his talent for exposing gripping personal stories within the larger context, his passion for his topics, and his compassion for his subjects overshadows any technical flaws. Jonathan Kozol s The Shame of the Nation takes the reader on a tour through schools largely in the New York and Boston areas ravaged by the effects of apartheid schooling Kozol focuses largely on the socio economic backgrounds of school children, in order to provide a truly heart wrenching picture of America s poorly funded, overcrowded, and unabashedly and often ironically segregated schools He makes frequent use of personal experiences and clever anecdotes in order to make his point that while Brown Vs Board of Education was a historic and remarkable trial, it did not have much of an impact on desegregating schools in particular He uses statistics that show the eye opening discrepancies in funding received by schools of lower socio economic status vs those with wealthier parents and children backing them, and goes further to show how so very often thesepoorly funded schools have primarily black and hispanic school children attending them More than simply delving into the schools funding and demographic makeup, Kozol utilizes his own experience as an educator to analyse the teaching practices and customs being tried in these schools It is at this point, where Kozol begins to truly identify the differences in educational standards and practices between schools of lower and higher socio economic statuses that Kozol is, in my opinion, at his most successful It is one thing to depersonalize an argument such as this, speaking only of differences in funding and demographics between schools, it is another entirely to shine the spotlight on the actual methods being employed Kozol portrays a landscape of grimy, collapsing schoolhouses and strict soul crushed teachers in such a skillful manner that one may forget that they are reading about actual schools in the United States, and instead think to George Orwell s 1984 Particularly striking is the mention, very early on in the piece, of classes hushed to immediate silence by the stern gesture of a particular educator who, as Kozol described, seemed almost pleased with himself for being able to complete this task so effectively Kozol, skillfully contrasts these shameful conditions with those enjoyed by wealthier, usually white, children In doing all this, Kozol successfully paints a gray picture of the other America kept in a cycle of poor conditions.Kozol himself, as mentioned, is an American writer that has devoted a great deal of his life to the educational system Graduating summa cum laude from harvard University, Kozol has been an intellectual heavyweight for many years, studying under a number experienced authors in Paris, and finally moving back to the United States to tutor children in Roxbury Massachusetts Soon after this, Kozol became a school teacher for the Boston Public School system, where he draws many of his experiences for The Shame of the Nation After he was fired from the district for teaching a Langston Hughes Poem, Kozol became involved in the Newton School District, and becamededicated to writing, and social justice work, eventually going on to author a number of pieces such as Death at an Early Age, Amazing Grace, And, of course, The Shame of the Nation I found The Shame of the Nation to be a capturing book with a fair amount of numerical evidence to back up its claims The lack of footnotes in order to easily find this evidence was lamented, and the repetitive nature of the book one is drawn to a Cicero quotation about making one s point plainly and clearly became tiresome at points, but despite these faults it was for the most part an enjoyable and informative read Further than this, it was a deeply important read that allows one to better understand the plight of their fellow Americans, to empathize with them, and to think about making the changes necessary to allow these children and their children after them to have a good education, and an equal footing in life dependent solely on their own merit, rather than money or circumstance Take for example Kozol s anecdote about the girl who attempted to take an AP class in high school, and found instead that she had been placed in a sewing class Take her friend s angry response to the situation You re ghetto, so you sew I myself as a student have never had my choices made for me, in large part, and I have been granted the extraordinary opportunity to challenge myself in AP classes such as the one this girl was trying to take It is deeply saddening to see those that wish to better themselves, and to invest in their future lives, denied the opportunity due to a lack of school funding while others have a greater budget than they know what to do with I do recommend this book as a powerful glimpse into the side of American society our politicians are often so eager to sweep under the rug entirely, or adress only briefly, and as a learning experience by which one may come to understand the situation of their fellow American, andimportantly, their fellow man. Jonathan Kozol takes a strong stand on the corrupt school system of modern times Children of low income neighborhoods are receiving poor educations in which are now where near the quality to those of richer neighborhoods just a few miles away Conditions in these segregated low income communities attend schools with horrible learning conditions which include bad learning environments, poor teachers, and little government funding These students are falling behind from the rest of society and they are not receiving a proper education that will set them up for the real world In result,if students wanted to take initiative of their education and attempt to transfer to a better school, they can t The segregated schools are furthersegregated when people of a higher class receiving a better education would never switch schools to a known lower class education Jonathan Kozol exposes this divide and what school is truly like for the students of the lower class segregated schools Jonathan Kozol personally explores the lower class segregated education of this country He exposes the lack of education and shows what these schools use their time for The issue is that there is such a lack of funding, in result there is frequent testing of the students to see where the school place Schools with higher placement receivefunding Due to this the teachers take most of their time preparing students for these tests and mentally convincing them that the tests really matter This takes time away from actual learning and also leads to students falling behind from students in higher class education Students in higher class education have self funding for parents which boost their quality of education further compared to the lower class where such funding is not possible It is very clear that if these two groups integrated there would be equal education Getting to that point is a process that we as a nation are working towards Jonathan Kozol is an 81 year old from Boston, MA He devoted most of his life to American Public Education to further understand where the system is flawed We know he is credible due to his extensive passion for this topic along with dozens of first hand experiences in schools The book was very informative in the sense of broadening my knowledge of what actually takes place in some school systems across the country I know that what I was reading was reliable because of his passion for the topic along with with his connection he displays with the students he talks with We can see that he genuinely cares for the best of every student and wants to make a change With the number of schools he visited along with the consistency of the answers he received from students goes to show what the education is truly like in low class communities The book had a positive impact on me in the sense that I now have a further understanding of how bad some children just like us have it in some parts of the country, which makes meappreciative of what my education is In terms of the quality of the read itself it was very stale Facts were consistently brought up and were repetitive If you were to read any two chapters of the book you would take away the same thing from andy other two chapters These facts really did a good job at backing up his purpose to make a change but, they were very repetitive. This book was a very educational and inspiring read on the racism and unfair opportunities within education due to the wealth of the surrounding community It is an eye opener for those who have better resources and chances because of their neighborhood and don t realize how different some children have it Jonathan Kozol does a marvelous job exposing the flaws in the educational system that many would not know of otherwise, including that America s schools went back to being segregated as they were centuries ago, which is now frowned upon but still happening The opportunity gap between students in different areas shows in the long term because some inner city schools allow students to fall behind due to lack of resources teachers and it affects them the rest of their life Kozol uses his own experiences to try and make a change in this flawed system and is an activist for these children who lack opportunity due to things such as their house income, neighborhood and skin color He tries to make a change for these kids and starts it with himself, taking the time to teach them and shape them into the students he knows they can be This is something that apparently not too many other teachers would do, seeing as many of the schools had an inadequate number of staff Another issue with the schools being treated improperly is that although the schools desperately need money, there is nobody willing to invest People who could donate feel that it s a lost cause and others are not in the position to be giving away their money, even if it is to their child s school For some, putting food on the table is a littleimportant than fixing a window that they don t even have to look out of But this is the issue with thieb schools, people do not realize how difficult it is to learn when the school is falling apart all around them To elaborate on this issue of inadequate conditions, Kozol talks about certain cases where some of his students that he had taught before would write to him and describe how bad it was sometimes For instance, one of the schools was infested with rats which caused students to get sick, sending them home It is very difficult to learn when you cannot even be at school Many schools Kozol taught at had problems like not having stable classrooms and always being on the move This is also very distracting and makes for a tough learning environment because there is nothing reliable and students have to focus on their things rather than the work All in all, Jonathan Kozol had very strong points and did a brilliant job of exposing the flaws of the modern day educational system, especially in inner city urban schools This book was very inspiring and should be read by all so that they can truly understand how tough it is for some children these days to get a good education, which is a right that is supposed to be given to all. While writing his book Shame of the Nation author Jonathan Kozol visited over 60 schools across America to compare the rural area schools to the city schools While visiting the schools he realized how much has not changed since the Board of Education battles 50 years ago Schools are just as much or maybe evensegregated than they were before the Supreme Court ruled schools to have no segregation Looking at the different schools he realized schools that were primarily white would offer AP classes while the schools that were primarily black would offer classes like hairdressing Kozol describes how schools could be separated by a minimal drive but the difference is uncomparable Primarily schools in the city would be rat infested or broken down with no supplies and maybe even not enough desks, then just a few minutes away would be a school funded by the community, thriving with a good facility and many classes to choose from Through his writing Kozol criticizes the way school districts are run and how the segregation has not changed throughout the may years it has been ruled out by the court THe author Jonathan Kozol went to college for english literature, then traveled to Paris to learnabout writing with some of the top writers in the world When Kozol returned he began to tutor children in Massachusetts and then becoming a permanent teacher in the Boston Public Schools After teaching for many years Kozol got involved with social justice work a put intime to writing which then launched his career in writing about social injustices in education While reading Shame of the Nation I realized how much the culture in education has not been changed Hearing what other area schools are like is an eye opener to how different a rural area can be When listening to the stories of the children in school it made me realize that those children don t understand what a quality education looks like The book was very informing because it brings the reader into real life scenarios based on facts that show how corrupt the education system really is Kozol also made the book very entertaining by always keeping the reader on their toes Going from issue to issue keeps the reader interested and always wanting to find outWith every chapter having a new issue or story the reader finds themselves excited for the next topic or curious about what the next story will be about. The shame of the nation by Jonathan Kozol is a very informative book in which Kozol himself goes and visits over 60 public schools At each of these schools he unveils awful conditions that the inner city children still go through after 15 years ago when the federal courts began to dismantle the the ruling of Brown vs Board of education The schools today still face segregation as well as many other issues Most of the inner city schools are apartheid schools which cause the kids to be completely separated from any whites In these schools kids face issues From health hazards to a strict almost militarized way of teaching to many other awful issues that have a really big impact on the students in the schools Kozol is very credible because he himself was a teacher in Boston for many years and he experienced the issues first hand and he seems very passionate for what he does His passion makes him very credible as well because he make a big effort to go to tons of schools to show people the awful things the kids face and to try and make a Change Kozol also in the book cites and quotes students and information he finds in the schools making him extremely credible and trustworthy In my perspective I did enjoy the book a little bit but after a while it did get quite boring and I thought it was almost repetitive Although the book did give a lot of information I felt as if it was almost too much Due to that in the last few chapters my interests in the book faded It faded because it made it difficult for me to concentrate with what was going on in the book Even thought it s was too informative it did have quite an impact on me The issues that Kozol talked about such as the health hazards that kids are exposed to really did make me upset It is sad to think that kids in this day and age are exposed to harmful environments that can put risks on their lives The book for me personally makes me grateful for the schooling I have because I sometimes take it for granted At our school we have options as to what classes we can choose At these inner city schools Kozol shows how kids aren t allowed to choose what classes they take and are almost held back from taking advanced classes Instead they are forced and told they have to take classes that won t help further the kids education such as hair braiding The book really does open your eye and is worth reading to get an insight to what kids today still go through.